Saeed Taki, Zeynab Esmaeili

DOI Number
First page
Last page


This study aimed at investigating the effect of shadowing on listening comprehension of Iranian EFL learners and also how it could influence their listening self-efficacy as well as its relationship with their metacognitive awareness of listening strategies.  To this end, 38 EFL learners (20 females and 18 males) in a language institute in Esfahan, Iran, with an average age of 16 years old, at the intermediate level of language proficiency were selected through the convenience sampling method. They were randomly divided into two groups of experimental (n = 19) and control (n = 19). The experimental group was exposed to shadowing in the listening portion of their English classes. Data were obtained via a listening comprehension test and two related questionnaires. Results revealed that shadowing had a significant positive impact on the learners’ listening performance. Further, the correlation between shadowing and self-efficacy was found to be moderately positive though statistically non-significant. Finally, shadowing was found to significantly and positively affect the frequency of using metacognitive listening strategies. Findings have implications for language learners and teachers.

Key words: listening self-efficacy, metacognitive strategies, shadow listening, EFL learners


listening self-efficacy, metacognitive strategies, shadow listening, EFL learners

Full Text:



Al-Alwan, Ahmed, Sahail Asassfeh, and Yousef Al-Shboul. 2013. “EFL Learners’ Listening Comprehension and Awareness of Metacognitive Strategies: How Are They Related?” International Education Studies, 6(9): 31-39.

Anderson, Neil. J. 1999. Exploring Second Language Reading: Issues and Strategies. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.

Baleghizadeh, Sasan and Amir Hosein Rahimi. 2011. “The Relationship Among Listening Performance, Metacognitive Strategy Use and Motivation from a Self-Determination Theory Perspective.” Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 1 (1): 61-67. doi:10.4304/tpls.1.1

Bandura, Albert. 1977. “Self-Efficacy: Toward A Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change. Psychological Review, 84: 191-215.

Bandura, Albert. 1986. Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Brown, Gillian. 1995. “Dimensions of Difficulty in Listening Comprehension.” In A Guide for the Teaching of Second Language Listening, edited by David J. Mendelsohn and Joan Rubin, 59-73. San Diego, CA.: Dominie Press.

Caldwel, JoAnne. 2008. Comprehension Assessment: A Classroom Guide. New York: Guilford Press.

Chen, Chin-Chuan and Huang, C. T. “Raising EFL College Students’ Metacognitive Awareness About Listening.” Paper presented at the NYS TESOL 41st Annual Conference, Melville, NY, October 2011.

Chiu, Bie. E. 2006. “An Investigation of English Listening Strategies Used by Continuous Education Program Students in Taiwan.”

Commander, Millie and Maria de Guerrero. 2016. “Shadow-Reading: Guidelines for a Socially-Mediated Approach to Reading in the Second/Foreign Language Classroom.” The Reading Matrix: An International Online Journal, 16(1), 32-48.

Coskun, Abdullah (2010). “The Effect of Metacognitive Strategy Training on the Listening Performance of Beginner Students.” Research on Youth and Language, 4(1): 35-50.

Goh, Christine, Yusnita Taib. 2006. “Metacognitive Instruction in Listening for Young Learners.” ELT Journal, 60 (3): 222–232.

Gray, Jeffrey A. 1975. Elements of a Two-Process Theory of Learning. London: Academic Press.

Habte-Gabr, Ezana. 2006. “The Importance of Socio-Affective Strategies in Using EFL for Teaching Mainstream Subjects.” The Journal of Humanizing Language Teaching, 8(5).

Hamada, Yo. 2012. “An Effective Way to Improve Listening Skills Through Shadowing.” The Language Teacher, 36 (1): 3-10.

Hauck, Mirjam. 2005. “Metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive strategies, and CALL.” In Call: Research perspectives edited by Joy L. Egbert and Gina Mikel Petrie, 65-86. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Kummin, Sa’adiah and Saemah Rahman. 2010. “The Relationship Between the Use of Metacognitive Strategies and Achievement in English.” Procedia Social and Behavioural Sciences, 7(C): 145-150.

Kurz, Ingrid. 1992. “Shadowing’ Exercises in Interpreter Training.” In Teaching Translation and Interpreting: Training, Talent and Experience edited by Cay Dollerup and Anne Loddegaard, 245-256. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing.

Lambert, Richard D. 1992. Foreign Language Planning in the United States. NFLC Occasional Papers. National Foreign Language Center, John Hopkins University.

Lorsbach, Anthony and Jerry Jinks. 1999. “Self-Efficacy Theory and Learning Environment Research.” Learning Environments Research, 2(2): 157-167.

Lu, P. H. 2008. “English Listening Comprehension Strategy Used by Students of Pre-Sessional Courses of Northumbria University.” Master’s Thesis, Southern Taiwan University.

Marslen-Wilson, William D. 1975. “Sentence Perception as an Interactive Parallel Process.” Science, 189: 226-228. DOI: 10.1126/science.189.4198.226

Montebon, Darryl Roy T. 2016. “Shadow Education: Effects on Students’ Self-Efficacy in Science.” International Journal of Research Studies in Education, 5 (1): 31-40. Doi: 10.5861/ijrse.2015.1212

Muchisky, Dennis M. 1983. Relationships Between Speech and Reading Among Second Language Learners. Language Learning, 33 (1): 77–102 DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-1770.1983.tb00987.x

Murphey, Tim. “Proactive Adjusting to the Zone of Proximal Development: Learner and Teacher Strategies.” Paper presented at the 2nd Conference for Socio-Cultural Research Vygotsky– Piaget, Geneva, September 1996.

Murphey, Tim. 2001. “Exploring Conversational Shadowing.” Language Teaching Research, 5(2): 128-155. Doi:10.1177/136216880100500203

Nunan, David. 1999. Second Language Teaching and Learning. Boston: Heinle & Heinle Publishers.

O’Malley, J. Michael, and Chamot, Anna U. 1990. Learning Strategies in Second Language Acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Oxford, Rebecca L. 1990. Language Learning Strategies: What Every Teacher Should Know. New York: Newbury House Publishers.

Pajares, Frank.1997. “Current Directions in Self-Efficacy Research.” Advances in Motivation and Achievement, 10(149): 1-49.

Richards, Jack C. 2008. Teaching Listening and Speaking. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rost, Michael. 2005. “L2 Listening.” In Handbook of Research in Second Language Teaching and Learning edited by Eli Hinkel, 503-527. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Sabatini, Elisabetta. 2000. “Listening Comprehension, Shadowing and Simultaneous Interpretation of Two ‘Non-Standard’ English Speeches.” Interpreting, 5: 25–48. DOI: 10.1075/intp.5.1.03sab

Schunk, Dale H. 1989. “Self-Efficacy and Achievement Behaviors.” Educational Psychology Review, 1(3): 173-208. Doi=

Schunk, Dale H. (1991). “Self-Efficacy and Academic Motivation.” Educational Psychologist, 26: 207-231

Seo, Kyoko. 2002. “Research Note: The Effect of Visuals on Listening Comprehension: A Study of Japanese Learners’ Listening Strategies.” International Journal of Listening, 16(1): 57-81.

Shiki Osata, Kadota Shuhei Mori Yoko, Shinsuke Yoshida. 2010. “Exploring Differences Between Shadowing and Repeating Practices: An Analysis of Reproduction Rate and Types of Reproduced Words.” Annual Review of English Language Education in Japan, 21: 81–90.

Shirani Bidabadia, Farinaz and Hamidah Yamat. 2010. “Learning Style Preferences by Iranian EFL Freshman University Students.” Procedia social and Behavioral Sciences, 7 (C): 219-226.

Tamai, Ken. 1997. “Shadowing as a Powerful Listening Tool: Why Does It Work? A Presentation Given in March to the Hiroshima Branch of JALT.” The Language Teacher, 21(5): 72-72.

Tannen, Deborah. 2007. Talking Voices. Repetition, Dialogue, and Imagery in Conversational Discourse (2nd ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Vandergrift, Larry. 2006. “The Metacognitive Awareness Listening Questionnaire: Development and Validation.” Language Learning, 56 (3): 431-462.

DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9922.2006.00373.x

Vandergrift, Larry, Christine. C. M Goh, Catherine J. Mareschal, and Marzieh. H. Tafaghodtari. 2006. “The Metacognitive Awareness Listening Questionnaire (MALQ): Development and Validation.” Language Learning, 56(3): 431-462. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9922.2006.00373.x

Vandergrift, Larry. 1999. “Facilitating Second Language Listening Comprehension: Acquiring Successful Strategies.” ELT Journal, (53)3: 168-176.

Vandergrift, Larry. 2003. “From Prediction Through Reflection: Guiding Students Through the Process of L2 Listening.” Canadian Modern Language Review, 59: 425-440.

Vygotsky, Lev. 1986. Thought and Language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Renzhi, Yan. 2012. “Improving English Self-Efficacy of Chinese University Students- Influences of Learning Strategy Training with Feedback on Strategy Use and Performance.” PhD Diss. Durham University.

Yang, Chunmei. 2009. “A Study of Metacognitive Strategies Employed by English Listeners in an EFL Setting.” International Education Studies, 2(4): 134-139. DOI:

Zimmerman, Barry J., Albert Bandura, and Manuel Martinez-Pons. 1992. “Self-Motivation for Academic Attainment: The Role of Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Personal Goal Setting.” American Educational Research Journal, 29(3): 663-676.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 2334-9182 (Print)
ISSN 2334-9212 (Online)