Tina Orel Frank

DOI Number
First page
Last page


Languages are subject to constant change, with new lexis being just one, yet the most sensitive. Languages for specific purposes are no exception, and this is particularly true in areas that are currently undergoing rapid development, such as tourism. The aim of the research is to analyze neonyms in the English tourism language from the perspective of new lexicon-building processes. Neonyms are understood as terms in the neologistic phase of the lexical life cycle. The contribution extracts them according to their subjective time-bound definition in the field of tourism based on the use of Internet sources as corpus, which is particularly suitable for the research of new language. The paper contributes to the understanding of tourism as a field and its specific language and sheds light on recent (often unsystematic) term formation processes. It shows indirect theoretical word formation tendencies, which are also applicable when comparing word formation processes in General English as opposed to the English language for tourism purposes.


neonym, term-formation processes, tourism, terminology

Full Text:



Algeo J (ed.). 1991. Fifty Years Among the New Words: A Dictionary of Neologisms, 1994–1991. Cambridge: CUP.

Anesa, P. 2018. Lexical Innovation in World Englishes: Cross fertilization and Evolving Paradigms. London, New York: Routlege.

Barrs, K. 2015. Catachrestic and Non-Catachrestic English Loanwords in the Japanese Language. In Abstract Book of Corpus Linguistics, edited by Formato, F. & Hardie, A., 372-374. Lancaster: UCREL.

Bauer, L. 2002. English Word-Formation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bergenholz, H. & Tarp, S. 1995. Manual of Specialised Lexicology: The Preparation of Specialised Dictionaries. Amsterdam in Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Bidnenko, N. P., 2013. Modern Tendencies in the Process of Term Formation. News of Dnepropetrovsk University named after Alfred Nobel 1 (5). 205–210.

Butowski, L. 2016. Tourism as a Discipline in the light of non-classical sociology of science. Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, 16(4), 436–454.

Cabré, M. T. 1998. Terminology: Theory, Methods and Applications. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing.

Cabré, M. T. Estopa Bagot, R. & Chelo Vargas, S. 2012. Neology in specialized communication. Terminology 18(1). 1–7.

Crystal, David (ed.), 2003. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Csak, E. 2011. The Translation of Neologisms in Special Terminology. Translation Journal 5(3). Available at: (Accessed on 16.4.2013).

Dann, G. 2012. Remodelling a changing language of tourism: from monologue to dialogue and trialogue, PASOS, 4 (10), 59–70.

Decroly, J.-M. & Diekman A. 2018. The Production of Tourism Concepts. Via Tourism Review, 13, 1–7. Available at: (Accessed on 3. 3. 2020).

Fischer, Roswitha, 1998. Lexical Change in Present-Day English: A Corpus Based Study of the motivation, Institutionalization and Productivity of Creative Neologisms. Tübinger: Gnv.

Francesconi, S. 2014. Reading Tourism Texts: A Multimodal Analysis. Bristol: Channel View Publications.

Francl, M. 2011. Neolexia. Nature Chemistry, 3, 417–418.

Franklin, A. & Crang, M. 2001. The trouble with tourism and travel theory? Tourist studies, 1(1). 5–22.

Future Foundation. 2016. Millennial Travel Report. Available at: (Accessed on 5. 11. 2018).

Gložančev, A. 2009. Analitična osvetlitev novejše slovenske leksike. In Novejša slovenska leksika (v povezavi s spletnimi jezikovnimi viri), edited by Gložančev, A., Jakopin, P., Michelizza, M., Uršič, L. & Žele, 9-35. A. Ljubljana: Založba ZRC, ZRC SAZU.

Gong, W. & Hong, H. 2019. Using Corpus-based Analysis of Neologisms on China’s New Media for Teaching Chinese as a Second or Foreign Language. In Computational and Corpus Approaches to Chinese Language Learning, edited by Lu X., Chen B., Chinese Language Learning Sciences. Springer, Singapore.

Halliday, M. A. K. & Yallop, C. 2007. Lexicology: A Short Introduction. London: Continuum.

Hormingo, M. T. D. 2012. Lexical Creation and Euphemism: Regarding the Distinction Denominative or Referential Neology vs. Stylistic or Expressive Neology. Lexis - E-Journal in English Lexicology 7. Available at: (Accessed on 31. 7. 2018).

Janssen, M. 2013. Lexical gaps. In Chapelle, C. A. The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics. Blackwell Publishing. Available at: (Accessed on 15.1. 2014).

Jemec Tomazin, M. 2010. Slovenska pravna terminologija: od začetkov v 19. stoletju do danes. Ljubljana: Založba ZRC, ZRC SAZU.

Kerremans, D. 2015. A Web of New Words: A Corpus-Based Study of the Conventionalization Process of English Neologisms. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.

Lehrer, A. 2003. Understanding Trendy Neologisms. Italian Journal of Linguistics. 15 (1), 271–384.

Lehrer, A. 2007. Lexical Creativity in Texts: Advertising and the Media. In Lexical Creativity, Texts and Contexts, edited by Munat, J., 114–134. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

MacKenzie, I. 2014. Lexical innovation: cromulently embiggenin a language. Alicante Journal of English studies. 27 (2014). 91–105.

Malenkina, N. & Ivanov, S. 2018. A Lingusitic Analysis of The Official Tourism Websites of the Seventeen Spanish Autonomous Communities. Jounal of Destination Marketing and Management, 9, 204–233.

Mattiello, E. 2013. Extra-grammatical Morphology in English. Berlin in Boston: Walter de Gruyter.

Mattiello, E. 2017. Analogy in Word-Formation: A Study of English Neologisms and Occasionalisms. Berlin in Boston: Walter de Gruyter.

Mattiello, Elisa, 2018. Paradigmatic Morphology: Splintes, Combining Forms and Secreted Affixes. SKASE Journal of Theoretical Linguistics, 15 (1), 2–22.

Maybaum, R. 2013. Language Change as a Social Process: Diffusin Patterns of Lexical Innovations in Twitter. Berkley Linguistics Society, 39, 152–166.

Michelizza, M. 2015. Spletna besedila in jezik na spletu: Primer blogov in Wikipedije v slovenščini. Lingua Slovenica. Ljubljana: Založba ZRC, ZRC SAZU.

Mikolič, V. 2013. Področni govor in terminologija na primeru jezika turizma. In Infrastruktura slovenščine in slovenistike, Obdobja 32, edited by Žele, A., 255–261. Ljubljana: Znanstvena založba Filozofske fakultete.

Minkova, D. & Stockwell, R. P. 2009. English Words: History and Structure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Muhvić-Dimanovski, V. 2005. Neologizmi. Problemi, teorije i primjene. Zagreb: Zavod za lingvistiku, Filozofska fakulteta Sveučilišta v Zagrebu.

Newmark, P. 1995. A Textbook of Translation. New York: Prentice Hall.

Norde, M. & Sippach, S. 2019. Nerdalicious scientainment: A network analysis of English libfixes. Word Structure. 12 (3). 353-384.

O'Dell, F. 2015. Creating new words: affixation in neologisms. ELT Journal 70 (1). 1–6.

Orel Frank, T. 2019. Angleški in slovenski neologizmi v jeziku turizma. University of Ljubljana, The Faculty of Arts. Doctoral dissertation.

Paryzek, P. 2008. Comparison of selected methods for retrieval of neologisms. Investigationes Linguisticae, 14 (2008). 163–181.

Plag, I. 2003. Word-Formation in English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rets, I. 2016. Teaching Neologisms in English as a Foreign Language Classroom. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 232 (2016), 813–820.

Rata, G. 2012. Adjectival Tourism. A Case Study. In The English of Tourism, edited by Rata, G., Petroman, I. & Petroman, C., 3–18. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholar Publishing.

Rey, A. 1995. Essays on Teminology. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing.

Sanders, E. 2010. Nooit meer uitslapen. Kleine kroniek van het moderne gezinsleven. Veen, 10de herziene editie.

Simeon, R. 1969. Enciklopedijski rječnik lingvističnih naziva. Zagreb: Matica hrvatska.

Sparks, B., H. Perkins & Buckley R. 2013. Online travel reviews as persuasive communication: The effects of content type, source, and certification logos on consumer behaviour. Tourism Management, 39, 1–9.

Stojičić, V. 2004. Sociolinguistic stimuli to the development of the English lexicon – language contact and social need. Linguistics and Literature, 3(1), 29–36.

Toporišič, J. 2000. Slovenska slovnica. Maribor: Založba Obzorja.

Tribe, John, 1997: The Indiscipline of Tourism. Annals of Tourism Research ,24 (3), 638–657.

Telfer, D. J., & Sharpley, R. 2015. Tourism and development in the developing world. (2nd ed.). Oxon: Routledge.

Ulanova, S. 2014. Affix semantics (terms vs. neologisms). Terminology Science in Russia today: From the Past to the Future, 116, 389.

UNWTO. 2016. Tourism Highlights. 2016 Edition. Available at: (Accessed on 20. 1. 2019).

UNWTO. 2019. UNWTO World Tourism Barometer and Statistical Annex. Available at: (Accessed on 13. 11. 2019).

Verhovnik, T. 2002. Slovensko izrazje odnosov z javnostmi. Teorija in praksa, 39 (5), 755–765.

Vidovič Muha, A. 2000. Slovensko leksikalno pomenoslovje: govorica slovarja. Ljubljana: Znanstveni inštitut Filozofske fakultete.

Vidovič Muha, A. 2011. Slovensko skladenjsko besedotvorje. Ljubljana: Znanstvena založba Filozofske fakultete.

Vintar, Š. 2008. Terminologija: Terminološka veda in računalniško podprta terminografija. Ljubljana: Znanstvena založba Filozofske fakultete v Ljubljani.

Voršič, I. 2013. Sistemska in nesistemska leksikalna tvorba v novejšem besedju slovenskega jezika. Maribor: Univerza v Mariboru, Filozofska fakulteta.

Zalmont, N., Pappu, A. & Thadani, K. 2019. Unsupervised Neologism Nominalization Using Embedding Space Mapping. Proceedings of the 2019 EMNLP Workshop W-NUT: The 5th Workshop in Noisy User-Generated Text. 425–430. Hong Kong: Association for Computational Linguistics.

Zwicky, A. 2010. Libfixes. Available at: (Accessed on 16. 11. 2018).

Žagar Karer, M. 2011. Terminologija med slovarjem in besedilom. Analiza elektrotehniške terminologije. Ljubljana: ZRC SAZU.

Žele, A. 2010. Pomenotvorne zmožnosti z vidika /de/terminologizacije (v slovenščini). In Terminologija in sodobna terminografija, edited by Ledinek, N. &, Žagar Karer, M. & Humar, M., 125–139. Ljubljana: Založba ZRC, ZRC SAZU.

Žele, A. 2012. Pomensko-skladenjske lastnosti slovenskega glagola. Ljubljana: ZRC SAZU.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 2334-9182 (Print)
ISSN 2334-9212 (Online)