Lyudmila A. Smirnova

DOI Number
First page
Last page


The paper describes the ambiguity and inconsistency in using the term scaffolding and outlines the main features of scaffolding as identified by different researchers. Scaffolding is viewed as a multi-layered process involving at least two active participants equally benefiting from using it. The paper demonstrates how scaffolding can be incorporated into a lesson aimed at preparing students for the Reading Module of the Academic International English Language Testing System (IELTS). A number of scaffolding techniques outlined for the pre-, during- and post-reading stages are targeted at helping learners to overcome the three main areas of difficulty in coping with the IELTS tasks: limited vocabulary, unawareness of reading strategies and time constraints.

Full Text:



Averill J. Building language acquisition with scaffolding techniques . Accessed January 22, 2016.

Bradley, K. S., and J. A. Bradley. "Scaffolding academic learning for second language learners." The Internet TESL Journal X (2004). Accessed January 22, 2016.

Brown, C., and A. Broemmel. "Deep scaffolding: enhancing the reading experiences of English language learners." The NERA Journal 46 (2011): 34-39.

Donato, R. "Collective scaffolding in second language learning." In Vygotskian approaches to second language research, edited by J. Lantolf and G. Appel, 33-56. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1994.

ESL Workshop: Scaffolding Theory. 1996-2012. Frankfurt International School. Accessed January 22, 2016.

Hartman, H. "Scaffolding & cooperative learning." In Human Learning and Instruction, 23-69. New York: City College of City University of New York, 2002.

Hammond, J., and P. Gibbons." What is scaffolding?" In Scaffolding teaching and learning in language and literary education, edited by J. Hammond, 1-14. Newtown, Australia, 2001.

Hammond, J., and P. Gibbons. "Putting Scaffolding to work: the contribution of scaffolding in articulating ESL education." Prospect 20 (2005): 6-30.

Larkin, M. Using scaffolded instruction to optimize learning. Arlington VA: ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education., 2002. ERIC Identifier: ED474301.

Lipscomb, L., J. Swanson, and A. West. Scaffolding. Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching and Technology, 2004. Accessed January 26, 2016.

McKenzie, J. "Scaffolding for success"' The Educational Technology Journal 9 (1999). Accessed January 22, 2016.

Milton, J., H. Bell, and P. Neville. IELTS Practice Tests 2. Express Publishing, 2003.

Puntambekar, S., and R. Hubscher. "Tools for scaffolding students in a complex learning environment: What have we gained and what have we missed?" Educational Psychologist 40 (2005): 1-12.

Scarino, A., and A. Liddicoat. Teaching and learning languages: A guide. Funded by the Australian Government Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations, 2009.

Sharpe, T. "Scaffolding in action: Snapshots from the classroom." In Scaffolding teaching and learning in language and literary education, edited by J. Hammond, 31-48. Newtown, Australia, 2001.

van Der Stuyf, R. "Scaffolding as a Teaching Strategy", 2002. Accessed January 22, 2016.

van Lier, L. "Language learning pathways." In The ecology and semiotics of language learning: A sociocultural perspective, 133-163. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004.

Walqui, A. "Scaffolding instruction for English language learners: A conceptual framework." The International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 9 (2006): 159-180.

Wilhelm, J., T. Baker, and J. Dube. "Strategic reading: Guiding students to lifelong literacy," 6-12, 2001. Accessed January 24, 2016.

Zhao, R., and M. Orey. The scaffolding process: Concepts, features, and empirical studies. Unpublished manuscript, University of Georgia, 1999.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 2334-9182 (Print)
ISSN 2334-9212 (Online)