Violeta Damchevska

DOI Number
First page
Last page


This paper looks into the structure of four-word lexical bundles in scientific articles in English in economics journals, written by Macedonian scholars. It adopts the lexical bundle method, which requires multi-word sequences to be identified in an electronic corpus, based on their frequency and fixedness. For the purpose of the research, a corpus of economics research articles was compiled, based on which lexical bundles were identified, and compared with bundles found in four other disciplines. The results suggest that academic writers in the discipline of economics rely on the use of lexical bundles, and share bundles found among the twenty most frequent in the academic prose. The bundles identified in published economic writing show similarity with the bundles found in applied linguistics and business studies, and differences with the ones used in biology and electrical engineering. The grammatical structure of the bundles was found to be clausal, with the majority of bundles containing noun phrases and prepositional phrases. The findings from this research have some implications for EAP curricula developers.


lexical bundles, corpus, economics research articles, academic writing

Full Text:



Altenberg, Bengt. 1998. “On the Phraseology of spoken English: The evidence of recurrent word-combinations.” In Phraseology: Theory and Applications, edited by Anthony Paul Cowie, 101-122. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Altenberg, Bengt. 1993. “Recurrent word combinations in spoken English.” In Proceedings of the fifth Nordic association for English studies conference, edited by Julian D'Arcy, 17-27. Reykjavik: University of Iceland.

Anthony, Laurence. 2018. AntConc (Version 3.5.7) [Windows]. Tokio, Japan: Waseda University. Available from

Biber, Douglas. 2009. “A corpus driven approach to formulaic language.” International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 14:3, 275-311. doi 10.1075/ijcl.14.3.08bib issn 1384–6655 / e-issn 1569–9811.

Biber, Douglas, and Federica Barbieri. 2007. “Lexical bundles in university spoken and written registers.” English for Specific Purposes, 26(3), 263–286.

Biber, Douglas, Susan Conrad, and Viviana Cortes. 2004. “If you look at...: Lexical bundles in university teaching and textbooks.” Applied Linguistics, 25L, 371–405.

Biber, Douglas, Stig Johansson, Geoffrey Leech, Susan Conrad, and Edward Finegan. 1999. Longman grammar of spoken and written English. London, England: Longman.

Byrd, Pat, and Averil Coxhead. 2010. “On the other hand: Lexical bundles in academic writing and in the teaching of EAP.” University of Sydney Papers in TESOL, 5, 31–64.

Chen, Yu-Hua, and Paul Baker. 2010. “Lexical bundles in L1 and L2 academic writing." Language Learning and Technology, 14(2), 30–49.

Conrad, Susan, and Douglas Biber. 2005. “The frequency and use of lexical bundles in conversation and academic prose.” Applied Linguistics Faculty Publications and Presentations.

Cortes, Viviana. 2004. “Lexical bundles in published and student disciplinary writing:

Examples from history and biology.” English for Specific Purposes, 23(4), 397–423.

Firth, John Rupert (1951). Modes of meaning. Essays and Studies (The English Association). 118-149.

Hyland, Ken. 2012. “Bundles in academic discourse.” Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, Vol. 32, 150–169.

Hyland, Ken. 2008. “As can be seen: Lexical bundles and disciplinary variation.” English for Specific Purposes, 27, 4–21.

Jalali, Zahra Sadat, Mohammad Raouf Moini, and Mohamad Alaee Arani. 2015. “Structural and Functional Analysis of Lexical Bundles in Medical Research Articles: A Corpus-Based Study.” International Journal of Information Science and Management Vol. 13, No. 1, 51-69.

Lewis, Michael. 1993. The lexical approach. Language teaching publications.

Nattinger, James R., and Jeanette S. DeCarrico. 1992. Lexical phrases and language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Neely, Elizabeth, and Cortes Viviana. 2009. “A little bit about: analyzing and teaching lexical bundles in academic lectures.” Language Value. Vol. 1, N° 1, 17-38.

Schmitt, Norbert. 2004. Formulaic sequences. Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins.

Sinclair, John. 1991. Corpus, concordance, collocation. Oxford: OUP.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 2334-9182 (Print)

ISSN 2334-9212 (Online)


University of Niš

Univerzitetski trg 2, 18000 Niš, Serbia
Phone:    +381 18 257 095
Telefax:  +381 18 257 950

© 2013 by University of Niš, Serbia