Liudmila Mockiene, Povilas Aleksandravicius, Sigita Rackeviciene, Lora Tamosiuniene

DOI Number
First page
Last page


Creating and using language for special purposes reflects a rather high level of human needs in the hierarchy proposed by an American psychologist A. Maslow through creative activities and self-actualisation.  The understanding of one’s own belonging and identity as a manner of self-actualisation may happen through specific language usage. The article focuses on the review of the emerging European identity patterns found in the professional lexis of three sample European languages from the perspective of such disciplines as philosophy and linguistic history. In the first part of the article authors reflect on the key traceable characteristic features of European identity forms: a closed form of identity, an open form of identity and a destructive denial of identity as a transition device from one form into another. On the basis of the linguistic survey of historical experiences as traced in British, Lithuanian and Russian legal language vocabulary formation, it is concluded that changes in legal languages are reflective of social experiences and may be viewed as identity forming mechanisms.


fusion of horizons, social identity, European identity, general vocabulary, language for special purposes, borrowings

Full Text:




Aleksandravičius, Povilas (2016). The need for dialogic consciousness in postmodern politic society. Philosophy, sociology 27, 1, 14-22.

Bergson, Henry (1932). Les deux sources de la morale et de la religion. Paris: PUF.

Brague, Rémi (1999) Europe, la voie romaine. Paris: Gallimard.

Crystal, D. (2013). On Langugae Change. Available from: [accessed Aug 27, 2018].

Crystal, D. (2013). Loan word, 2013. Available from: [accessed Aug 27, 2018].

Crystal, D. (2003). English as a global language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Fasold, R. (1984). The sociolinguistics of society. Vol. I. New York: Basil Blackwell Ltd.

Ferry, Jean-Marc (1996). L’Éthique reconstructive. Paris: Cerf.

Gadamer, Hans-Georg (1960) Wahrheit und Methode. Tübingen: J.

C. B. Mohr.

Haspelmath, M. (2009). Lexical borrowing: Concepts and issues. Available from: [accessed Aug 27, 2018].

Housset, Emmanuel (2007). La vocation de la personne. Paris: PUF.

Huntington, Samuel Phillips (1996) The Clash of Civilizations and the Remarking of World Order. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Husserl, Edmund (1954). Die Krisis der europäischen Wissenschaften und die transzendentale Phänomenologie. La Haye: Nijhoff.

Jackson, Howard and Etienne Zé Amvela (2012) Words, Meaning and Vocabulary: An Introduction to Modern English Lexicology (2nd ed.). London: Continuum.

Jakaitienė, Evalda (2009). Leksikologija. Vilnius: Vilniaus universiteto leidykla.

Khrisat, A. Majiduddin, S. M. (2014). Language's Borrowings: The Role of the Borrowed and Arabized Words in Enriching Arabic Language. DOI: 10.11634/232907811503533

Linguistic borrowings. Collins Dictionary Online. Available from: [accessed Aug 27, 2018].

Lévi-Strauss, Claude (1983). L’Identité. Paris: PUF.

Maceina, Antanas (2007). Raštai. Vol. XIII. Vilnius: Margi raštai.

Maksimaitis, Mindaugas (2007) “Prie lietuviškos teisės kalbos ištakų”. Jurisprudencija 95, 5, 7-13.

Maley, Yon (1994). “The Language of the Law.” In John Gibbons, ed. Language and the Law, 11-50. London: Longman.

Manent, Pierre (2006). La Raison des nations. Réflexions sur la démocratie en Europe. Paris: Gallimard.

Mattéi, Jean-François (2007). Le regard vide. Essai sur l’épuisement de la culture européenne. Paris: Flammarion.

McIntyre, Dan (2010). History of English: A resource book for students (2nd ed.). London: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.

Mockienė, Liudmila (2016) Formation of terminology of constitutional law in English, Lithuanian and Russian / Konstitucinės teisės terminų daryba anglų, lietuvių ir rusų kalbose: doctoral thesis: humanities, philology (04 H). Vilnius: Vitae Litera.

Ricoeur, Paul (1992). Oneself as Another. Translated by K. Blamey. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Sontag, Susan (1967). “What’s Happening in America?” Partisan Review 34, 1, 57-58.

Salkauskis, Stasys (1919). Sur les confins de deux mondes: essai synthétique sur le problème de la civilisation nationale en Lituanie. Genève: Atar.

Subačius, Giedrius (2002). The Lithuanian Language: Traditions and Trends. Vilnius: Inter Se.

Superanskaja, Aleksandra V., Podol'skaja, Natalija V., & Vasil'eva, Natalija V. (2005) Obščaja terminologija: Terminologičeskaja dejatel'nost'. Moskva: URSS Jeditorial.

Šeškauskienė, Inesa (2013). Ways with Words: Insights into the English Lexicon and some Cross-Linguistic Aspects of Study. Vilnius: Vilnius University Publishing House.

Umbrasas, Alvydas (2010). Lietuvių teisės terminija 1918-1940 metais: Pagrindinių kodeksų terminai. Vilnius: Lietuvių kalbos institutas.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 2334-9182 (Print)
ISSN 2334-9212 (Online)