Dilek Tüfekçi Can

DOI Number
First page
Last page


Whereas research on English as a Foreign Language Learning (EFLL) anxiety has been the focus of many researchers, English as a Foreign Language Teaching (EFLT) anxiety as a newly pop-up concept has gained lesser attention than EFLL. Moreover, the research on EFLL commonly focuses on the anxiety provoking factors. Yet again, there has been very limited research on how to overcome anxiety-provoking factors on both research areas. Accordingly, as this study was two of the three segments of a university-based project and the subject of anxiety-provoking factors was the issue of another study, the purpose of this study was firstly to explore how to overcome anxiety-provoking factors among pre-service EFL teachers while teaching English to young language learners at a real classroom setting as a part of teaching practicum. Secondly, this study also attempted to make a holistic classification rather than an atomistic one as it classified the findings of overcoming anxiety provoking factors into subtitles such as cognitive, affective, socio-cultural resolutions and some other official resolutions. In the study, 25 EFL pre-service teachers at Balikesir University were the sample group. The qualitative data was collected through background questionnaires, interviews and reflections. The study concluded that pre-service EFL teachers revealed their reflections on how to overcome anxiety-provoking factors as they experienced Foreign Language Teaching Anxiety (FLTA) whilst practicing teaching English to young language learners during teaching practicum courses. Some practical recommendations were given at the end of the study. 


English as a foreign language, teaching anxiety, teaching practicum, anxiety-provoking factors, pre-service teachers

Full Text:



Anandari, C. L. (2015). Indonesian EFL Students’ Anxiety in Speech Production: Possible Causes and Remedy, TEFLIN Journal: A publication on the teaching and learning of English, 26(1), 1-16.

Aslrasouli, M., & Vahid, M. S. P. (2014). An investigation of teaching anxiety among novice and experienced Iranian EFL teachers across gender. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 98, 304-313.

Backman, N. (1976) Two measures of affective factors as they relate to progress in adult second language learning. Working Papers in Bilingualism, 10, 100-122.

Bailey, P., Daley, C. E. & Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (1999), Foreign Language Anxiety and Learning Style. Foreign Language Annals, 32, 63–76.

Bosmans, D., & Hurd, S. (2016). Phonological attainment and foreign language anxiety in distance language learning: a quantitative approach. Distance Education, 37(3), 287-301.

Croker, A. R. An introduction to qualitative research (2009) in Heigham, J., & Croker, R. (Eds.). Qualitative research in applied linguistics: A practical introduction. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Dewaele, J. M., Petrides, K. V., & Furnham, A. (2008). Effects of trait emotional intelligence and sociobiographical variables on communicative anxiety and foreign language anxiety among adult multilinguals: A review and empirical investigation. Language Learning, 58(4), 911-960.

Duxbury, J. G., & Tsai, L. L. (2010). The effects of cooperative learning on foreign language anxiety: A comparative study of Taiwanese and American universities. International Journal of Instruction, 3(1), 3-18.

Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The psychology of language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. Mahvah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Dörnyei, Z. (2007). Research methods in applied linguistics: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methodologies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

GhorbanDordinejad, F., & Nasab, A. H. F. (2013). Examination of the relationship between perfectionism and English achievement as mediated by foreign language classroom anxiety. Asia Pacific Education Review, 14(4), 603-614.

Güvendir, E. (2014). Using think-aloud protocols to identify factors that cause foreign language reading anxiety. Reading, 14(2), 109-118.

Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B., & Cope, J. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. The Modern language journal, 70(2), 125-132.

Horwitz, E. K. (1996). Even teachers get the blues: Recognizing and alleviating language teachers' feelings of foreign language anxiety. Foreign Language Annals, 29(3), 365-372.

Hurd, S., & Xiao, J. (2010). Anxiety and affective control among distance language learners in China and the UK. RELC Journal, 41(2), 183-200.

Johnson, E. W., Johnson, R. T., & Holubec, E. J. (1990). Circles of learning: Cooperation in the classroom. Edina, MN: Interaction Book.

Kayaoglu, M. N., & Saglamel, H. (2013). Students’ perceptions of language anxiety in speaking classes. Journal of History Culture and Art Research, 2(2), 142-160.

Kim, S. Y. (2009). Questioning the stability of foreign language classroom anxiety and motivation across different classroom contexts. Foreign Language Annals, 42(1), 138-157.

Kondo, D. S., & Ying-Ling, Y. (2004). Strategies for coping with language anxiety: The case of students of English in Japan. Elt Journal, 58(3), 258-265.

Kunt, N., & Tüm, D. Ö. (2010). Non-native student teachers’ feelings of foreign language anxiety. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 4672-4676.

Marcos‐Llinás, M., & Garau, M. J. (2009). Effects of language anxiety on three proficiency‐level courses of Spanish as a foreign language. Foreign Language Annals, 42(1), 94-111.

Matsuda, S., & Gobel, P. (2004). Anxiety and predictors of performance in the foreign language classroom. System, 32(1), 21-36.

Merç, A. (2010). Self-reported problems of pre-service EFL teachers throughout teaching practicum. Anadolu University, Journal of Social Sciences, 10(2), 199-226.

Merç, A. (2015). Foreign language teaching anxiety and self-efficacy beliefs of Turkish pre-service EFL teachers. The International Journal of Research in Teacher Education, 6(3), 40-58.

Nejad, S. G., & Keshavarzi, A. (2015). The Effect of Cooperative Learning on Reading Comprehension and Reading Anxiety of Pre-University Students. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research, 2(8), 169-180.

Oxford, R. L. (1997). Cooperative learning, collaborative learning, and interaction: Three communicative strands in the language classroom. The Modern Language Journal, 81, 443-456.

Pichette, F. (2009). Second language anxiety and distance language learning. Foreign Language Annals, 42(1), 77-93.

Rossman, G. B., & Rallis, S. F. (2003). Learning in the field: An introduction to qualitative research. London: Sage.

Slavin, R. E. (1991). Synthesis of research on cooperative learning. Educational Leadership, 48, 71-82.

Suwantarathip, O., & Wichadee, S. (2010). The impacts of cooperative learning on anxiety and proficiency in an EFL class. Journal of College Teaching and Learning, 7(11), 51.

Szyszka, M. (2011). Foreign language anxiety and self-perceived English pronunciation competence. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 2(1), 283-300.

Tanveer, M. (2007). Investigation of the factors that cause language anxiety for ESL/EFL learners in learning speaking skills and the influence it casts on communication in the target language (Master’s thesis). University of Glasgow, England. Retrieved from

Trang, T. T. T., & Moni, K. (2015). Management of foreign language anxiety: Insiders’ awareness and experiences. Cogent Education, 2(1), 1-20.

Trang, T. T. T., Baldauf, R. B., & Moni, K. (2013). Foreign language anxiety: Understanding its status and insiders' awareness and attitudes. Tesol Quarterly, 47(2), 216-243.

Tucker, R. E. (1976) Affective, cognitive, and social factors in second language acquisition. Canadian Modern Language Review, 32(3), 214-226.

Tum, D. O. (2012). Feelings of language anxiety amongst non-native student teachers. Procedia: Social and Behavioral Sciences, 47, 2055-2059.

Tum, D. O. (2015). Foreign language anxiety’s forgotten study: The case of the anxious preservice teacher. Tesol Quarterly, 49(4), 627-658.

Wu, K. H. (2010). The relationship between language learners’ anxiety and learning strategy in the CLT classrooms. International Education Studies, 3(1), 174.

Young, D. J. (1986) The relationship between anxiety and foreign language oral proficiency ratings. Foreign Language Annals, 19, 439-445.

Zoghi, M., & Alivandivafa, M. (2014). EFL Reading Anxiety Inventory (EFLRAI) Factorial Validity and Reliability. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 32(4), 318-329.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 2334-9182 (Print)

ISSN 2334-9212 (Online)


University of Niš

Univerzitetski trg 2, 18000 Niš, Serbia
Phone:    +381 18 257 095
Telefax:  +381 18 257 950

© 2013 by University of Niš, Serbia