Victoria Tuzlukova, Andrea Hall

DOI Number
First page
Last page


Modern advancements in technologies and further developments in computer-mediated communication have tremendously enhanced social practices. They also empowered individuals in sense of motivation, overcoming psychological barriers, creating the “collective intelligence” (Levy, 1997), providing for temporal and spatial flexibility, and for the synthesis of communication technologies, group and individual forms of communication (Katz & Rice, 2002). Rooted in the belief that professional development has a visible influence on the educational process and eventually leads to students’ achievements, this paper discusses in-service professional development in the context of a language institution in the Sultanate of Oman with a particular focus on the benefits of virtual environments on designing and implementing professional development and training programs that will enable teachers to bring innovation and creativity to their teaching practice. It also discusses barriers and challenges to professional development in the virtual context.


virtual professional development model, language teaching and learning, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman

Full Text:



Al-Khanjari, Z. (2013). From e-learning to personalized adaptive learning. Horizon, 274, Sultan Qaboos University Press, p.5

Ascilite Melbourne (2008). Retrieved October 1, 2015 from http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/melbourne08/procs/mackey-j.pdf.

AUTC (2016). Retrieved May 13, 2016 from http://www.learningdesigns.uow.edu.au/index.html.

Barnes, S.B. (2003). Computer-mediated communication: human to human communication across the Internet. Allyn and Bacon.

Brinkerhoff, J. (2006). Effects of a Long-Duration, Professional Development Academy on Technology Skills, Computer Efficacy, and Technology Integration Beliefs and Practices. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 39 (1), 19- 22.

Brown, J. Collins, A. & Duguid, P. (1989). Situated Cognition and the Culture of Learning. Educational Researcher, 18, 32-42.

Cobb, P. & Bowers, J. (1999). Cognitive and Situated Learning Perspectives in Theory and Practice. Educational Researcher. 28(2), 4-15.

Cole, M., & Wertsch, J. V. (2001). Beyond the individual-social antimony in discussions of courses: The challenge of context. Studies in Higher Education, 23(2), 191-206.

Cullata, R. (2013) Instructional design. Weaknesses of the ADDIE Model. Retrieved February 27, 2014 from http://www.instructionaldesign.org/.

Boud, D., Keogh, R., & Walker, D. (1985). Promoting reflection in learning: A model. In D. Boud, R. Keogh, & D. Walker (Eds.), Reflection: Turning Experience into Learning (pp. 18-40). London: Kogan Page.

Ertmer, P.A. (2005) Teacher pedagogical beliefs: The final frontier in our quest for technology integration? Educational Technology Research and Development. 53(4), 25-39.

Gannon-Leary, P. & Fontainha, E. (2007). Communities of practice and virtual learning communities: Benefits, barriers and success factors. eLearning papers. 5. Retrieved January 28, 2016 from www.elearningpapers.eu/.

Garrison, D.R. (2003). Cognitive presence for effective asynchronous online learning: The role of reflective inquiry, self-direction and metacognition, in: J. Bourne & J.C. Moore (Eds.), Elements of quality online education: Practice and direction, 4, (pp.29-38). The Sloan C Series, The Sloan Consortium, Needham, MA.

Goodyear, P. (2004). Patterns, pattern languages and educational design. In R. Atkinson, C. McBeath, D. Jonas-Dwyer & R. Phillips (Eds), Beyond the comfort zone: Proceedings of the 21st ASCILITE Conference (pp. 339-347). Perth, Retrieved May 2, 2016 from http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/perth04/procs/goodyear.html.

Grabinger, S.; Aplin C & Ponnappa-Brenner, G (2007) Instructional Design for Sociocultural Learning Environments. e-Journal of Instructional Science and Technology (e-JIST), 10(1). Retrieved October 1, 2016 from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=

Gunawardena, C.N., Nolla, A. C., Wilson, P. L., & Lopez-Islas, J. R. (2001). A cross-cultural study of group process and development in online conferences. Distance Education, 22(1), 85-122.

Hall, A. (2011). Designing culturally appropriate E-learning for learners from an Arabic background: A study in the Sultanate of Oman. In Edmundson, A. (Ed.), Cases on Globalized and Culturally Appropriate E-Learning: Challenges and Solutions. (pp. 94-113). IGI Global: Hershey, PA.

Hall, A., (2007). Vygotsky Goes Online: Learning Design from a Socio-cultural Perspective, Learning and Socio-cultural Theory. Exploring Modern Vygotskian Perspectives International Workshop, 1(1).

Herrington, J., Reeves, T.C; Oliver, R., Woo, Y. (2004). Designing authentic activities in Web-based courses. Journal of Computing in Higher Education. 16(I), 3-29.

Hewling, A. (2005). Culture in the online class: Using message analysis to look beyond nationality-based frames of reference. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 11(1). Retrieved October 23, 2016 from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2006.tb00316.x/abstract.

Jonassen, D. H. & Kwan, H. I. (2001) Communication patterns in computer mediated versus face-to-face group problem solving. Educational Technology, Research and Development, 49 (1), 35-51.

Katz, J. E., & Rice, R. E. (2002). Social consequences of internet use: Access, involvement, and interaction. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Levy, P. (1997). Collective Intelligence: Mankind’s emerging world in cyberspace. New York: Plenum Press.

Liu, X., Liu, S., Lee, S.-h., & Magjuka, R. J. (2010). Cultural Differences in Online Learning: International Student Perceptions. Educational Technology & Society, 13 (3), 177–188.

Ludwig-Hardman, S. & Dunlap, J. (2003). Learner Support Services for Online Students: Scaffolding for success. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 4, (1), 1-14. Retrieved November 1, 2015 from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/131/602.

Mackey, J. (2008). Blending real work experiences and virtual professional. Proceedings Ascilite. Melbourne.

Merrill, M.D., (2002) First Principles of Instruction. Educational Technology Research and Development, 50(3), 43–59.

Milligan, C. (1999). Delivering staff and professional development. Using Virtual Learning Environments. Heriot-Watt University. Report: 44. JISC Technology.

Prince M (2004). Does Active Learning Work? A review of the literature. Journal of Engineering Education. 93 (3), 223-231.

Sivy, M. & DiPietro, M. (2011). Transitioning to Virtual Teacher Professional Development: Intentionality in a Virtual World Environment. Technology and Teacher Education Annual, 2; 754-761.

Smith, M. K. (2009). ‘Jean Lave, Etienne Wenger and communities of practice’. The encyclopedia of informal education. Retrieved June 3, 2016 from www.infed.org/biblio/communities_of_practice.htm.

Sorensen, E. K. (2005). Networked elearning and collaborative knowledge building: Design and facilitation. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education. Retrieved May 23, 2016 from http://www.citejournal.org/vol4/iss4/general/article3.cfm.

Thurlow, C., Lengel, L. & Tomic, A. (2004). Computer-mediated communication. Sage Publications Ltd.

Trust, T. (2012). Professional Learning Networks Designed for Teacher Learning. Australian Educational Computing, 27(1),34-38.

Tu, C. H & McIsaac, M; (2002) The Relationship of Social Presence and Interaction in Online Classes. The American Journal of Distance Education. 16 (3) 131-150.

Tuzlukova, V., Greenwood, L., Al-Siyabi J & Scully, J. (2013). Language Teachers’ Perceived Computer Self-efficacy: Identifying Knowledge and Skills Gaps for Teacher-driven Professional Development. AWEJ. 4(3), 284-299.

Tuzlukova, V. & Rozina, I. (2010). Virtual Research Communities: From International Patterns to Local Implementations. In: Rotimi Taiwo (ed.) Handbook of Research on Discourse Behavior and Digital Communication: Language Structures and Social Interaction (745-758). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Virtual learning communities: benefits, barriers and success factors. eLearning Papers, 5.

Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 2334-9182 (Print)

ISSN 2334-9212 (Online)


University of Niš

Univerzitetski trg 2, 18000 Niš, Serbia
Phone:    +381 18 257 095
Telefax:  +381 18 257 950

© 2013 by University of Niš, Serbia