Reyhan Ağçam

DOI Number
First page
Last page


Stance refers to the lexical and grammatical expression of attitudes, feelings, judgments, or commitment concerning the propositional content of a message (Biber and Finegan, 1989).  The present study focused on epistemic verbs used in conveying author stance in Academic English. Being corpus-based in design, it investigated whether native and non-native speakers of English significantly differ with respect to the use of these items through the Contrastive Interlanguage Analysis (Granger, 1996) of doctoral dissertations written by native, Turkish-speaking and Spanish-speaking speakers of English. Findings of the study have indicated that Turkish-speaking group tends to be more confident and the native and Spanish-speaking groups are relatively more cautious in their academic writing. The study ends with a couple of reasons for these particular findings and a few instructional suggestions for academic writing.

This article has been corrected. Link to the correction


stance, epistemic verb, Contrastive Interlanguage Analysis

Full Text:



Costas Gabrielatos and Tony McEnery, Epistemic modality in MA dissertations, in Lengua y Sociedad: Investigacion e srecientes en lingüísticaaplicada, ed. Fuertes Olivera, 311-331. Lingüística y Filología, 61. Valladolid: Universidad de Valladolid, 2005.

Douglas Biber, and Edward Finegan. “Styles of stance in English: Lexical and grammatical marking of evidentiality and affect”. Text9 (1989): 93–124.

Douglas Biber, University language: A corpus-based study of spoken and written registers. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2006.

Eija Ventola and Anna Maureanen, Research and Writing in English. Helsinki: Yliopistopaino, 1990.

Françoise Salager-Meyer, “I Think that Perhaps You Should: A Study of Hedges in Written Scientific Discourse”, in Functional Approaches to Written Text: Classroom Applications, ed. Tom Miller, 105-118. English Language Programs: United States Information Agency, 1997.

Hugh Gosden. “Discourse functions of subject in scientific research articles”. Applied Linguistics, 14(1) (1990): 56-75.

Hüseyin Kafes, (2009). Authorial stance in academic English: Native and non-native academic speaker writers’ use of stance devices (modal verbs) in research articles. PhD Thesis, Anadolu University.

John Skelton, “Comments in academic articles”, in Applied Linguistics in Society: British Studies in Applied Linguistics 3, ed. Pamela Grunwell, 98-108. London: Centre for International Language, 1988.

Ken Hyland, “Hedging in Academic Writing and EAP Textbooks”. English for Specific Purposes, 13(3) (1994): 239-256.

Michael Stubbs, “A matter of prolonged field work: notes toward a model grammar of English”.Applied Linguistics, 7(1) (1986): 1-25.

Mike Scott,WordSmith Tools version 6. Liverpool: Lexical Analysis Software, 2012.

Oxford advanced learner’s dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Paul Baker, Andrew Hardie, and Tony McEnery, A glossary of corpus linguistics. Edinburg: Edinburg, 2006.

Susan Conrad and Douglas Biber, “Adverbial Marking of Stance in Speech and Writing”, in Evaluation in Text. Authorial Stance and the Construction of Discourse, eds. Susan Hunston and Geoff Thompson, 56-73. Oxford Linguistics: Oxford.

Susan Hunston and Geoff Thompson, “Evaluation: An introduction”, in Evaluation in text: authorial stance and the construction of discourse, eds. Susan Hunston and Geoff Thompson. Oxford: Oxford University Press 2000.

Sylviane Granger, “From CA to CIA and back: An integrated approach to computerized bilingual and learner corpora”, in Languages in contrast, ed. Karin Aijmer, Bengt Altenberg, and Mats Johansson, 37-51. Lund: Lund University Press, 1996.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 2334-9182 (Print)
ISSN 2334-9212 (Online)