Ljiljana Vukićević-Đorđević

DOI Number
First page
Last page


Metaphors are closely related to the principle of meaning extension. They have often been understood as conceptual rather than purely linguistic phenomena since the conceptual mapping functioning within our conceptual system allows more concrete concepts to be connected with the more abstract ones. Economists and financial professionals often appeal to biological metaphors in order to exploit the scenario from the living organism domain and its life cycle from birth to death. Analogies between biological and economic systems, in the light of cognitive and emotional functioning,  may be both descriptive and functional, the former being related to the field of semantics and the latter being  not simply a form of linguistic convenience.

Economic journals often tend to attract the widest possible audience. Since economic terms are often vague and incomprehensible, the authors often resort to vocabulary and expressions that seem familiar and even mundane. Understanding economics as an evolutionary system and following the principles of biological evolution the world of business and entire economic discourse have become more comprehensive.

Full Text:



Barrett, Christopher L., Karthik Channakeshava, Stephen Eubank, V.S.Anil Kumar and Madha V Marathe, “From biological and social network metaphors to coupled bio-social wireless networks”, International Journal of Autonomous and Adaptive Communications Systems, 4(2), (2011): 122-144

Boers, Frank. “Enhancing metaphoric awareness in specialized reading”, English for Specific Purposes 19, (2000): 137-147

Broers, Frank. “Crafty Creatures on the Move: A Few Metaphorical Models in Economic Discourse”, Accessed September 3, 2014, http://www.linse.uni-due.de/laud-downloadliste.html?articles=crafty-creatures-on-the-move-a-few-metaphorical-models-in-economic-discourse

Burbules, Nicholas, C., Gregory Schraw, and Woodrow Trathen, “Metaphor, Idiom, and Figuration”, Metaphor and Symbolic Activity, 4(2), (1989): 93-110

Cardini, Filippo-Enrico. Analysing English Metaphors of the Economic Crisis, Lingue Linguaggi 11, (2014): 59-76

Charteris-Black, Jonathan. “Metaphor and vocabulary teaching in ESP economics”, English for Specific Purposes 19, (2000): 149-165

Cohen, Ted. “Notes on Metaphor”, The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, Vol.34 (3), (1976): 249-259

Daly, Herman E., “On Economics as a Life Science”, Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 76 (3), (1968): 392-406

Eisenberg, Anne. “Metaphor in the Language of Science”. Scientific American, Vol.266 (5), (1992): 144

Gedigian, Matt, John Bryant,Srini Narayanan and Branimir Ćirić. “Catching Metaphors”, Gene, Mike. The Design Matrix: A Consilience of Clues, Arbor Vitae Press, 2007

Ghiselin, Michael T., “The Economy of the Body”, The American Economic Review 68(2), (1978): 233-237

Glucksberg, Sam and Catrinel Haught, “On the Relation Between Metaphor and Simile: When Comparison Fails”, Mind & Language Vol. 21 (3), (2006): 360-378

Glucksberg, Sam. Understanding Figurative Language: From Metaphors to Idioms. OUP, 2001

Goddard, Cliff. “Cross-linguistic research on metaphor”. Language and Communication, 16 (2), (1996): 145-151

Gowdy, John. “Introduction: Biology and Economics”, Structural Change and Economic Dynamics 8 (1997): 377-383

Hammerstein, Peter and Edward H.Hagen, “The second wave of evolutionary economics in biology”, TRENDS in Ecology and Evolution Vol.20 (11), (2005): 604-609

Hanks, Patrick. “The Syntagmatics of Metaphor and Idiom”. International Journal of Lexicography, Vol 17 (3), (2004): 245-274

Hannon, Bruce. “The use of analogy in biology and economics: From biology to economics, and back”. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics 8 (1997): 471-488

Henderson, Willie. “Metaphor, economics and ESP: some comments”. English for Specific Purposes 19 (2000): 167-173

Henderson, Willie. Metaphor and Economics. New Directions in Economic Methodology. Ed. R.E.Backhouse, London and New York: Routlege, 1994

Herrera, Honesto Soler, “A metaphor corpus in business press headlines”, Ibérica 15 (2008): 51-70

Isaacs, A., Egerton, H., Martin, E., Smith, K., Wright, H. A concise dictionary of business English. Oxford: OUP, 1990

Johnson, Arvid C., Mohamed O. Askar and Syed A. Imam. “Business Strategy Lessons from Biological System Theory”, International Journal of Management and Human Resources Vol 1 (2013): 1-9

Lakoff, George, and Mark Johnson, Metaphors We Live By, Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 2003.

Lakoff, George. Metaphor and Semantics. International Encyclopaedia of Linguistics. Ed. William Bright, Vol 2. New York: OUP, 1992

Mars, Metthew M., Judith L. Bronstein and Robert F. Lusch, “The Value of a Metaphor: Organizations and Ecosystems”, Organizational Dynamics 41, (2012): 271-280

Mayr, Ernst, This is Biology: The Science of the Living World, Cambridge USA: Harvard University Press, 1998

McCloskey, Donald N., “Metaphors Economists Live By”, Social Research 62 (2), (1995): 215-237

Philip, Gill. Colouring Meaning: Collocation and Connotation in Figurative Language. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing, 2011

Proceeding ScaNaLU '06 Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Scalable Natural Language Understanding, (2006): 41-48

Ritchie, David and Valrie Dyhouse, “Hair of the Frof and other Empty Metaphors: The Play Element in Figurative Language”, Metaphor and Symbol 23, (2008): 85-107

Robson, Arthur J., “The Biological Basis of Economic Behavior”, Journal of Economic Literature Vol.39 (1), (2001): 11-33

Sachs, Jeffrey. “Stages of Economic Development”. Accessed August 30, 2014. http://www.earthinstitute.columbia.edu/sitefiles/file/about/director/documents/china_speech061904.pdf

Searle, John, “Metaphor” in Metaphor and Thought, ed. Andrew Ortony, New York: CUP, (1978): 92-123

Skorezynska Sznajder, Hanna. “A corpus-based evaluation of metaphors in a business English textbook”, English for Specific Purposes 29 (2010): 30-42

Vass, Thomas E., 2014. Accessed July 17, 2014. Predicting Technology: A Practical Guide for Technology Managers and Marketing Professionals to Identify Future Market Opportunities, First Edition Design Pub. www.books.google.com

Velasco Sacristán, Marisol, “Metaphor and ESP: metaphor as a useful device for teaching L2 Business English learners”, Ibérica 10, (2004): 115-131

White, Michael. “Metaphor and economics: the case of growth”, English for Specific Purposes 22 (2003): 131-151

Wyatt, Sally. “Danger! Metaphors at Work in Economics, Geophysiology and the Internet”, Science, Technology & Human Values Vol.29 (2), (2004): 242-261


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN 2334-9182 (Print)
ISSN 2334-9212 (Online)